30 9 / 2014

gendest:

because a lot of people dont seem to get this:

  • golems are from jewish folklore. dont treat them like a generic fantasy creature, thats appropriative
  • kabbalah is a specifically jewish religious tradition. dont practice it if youre not jewish and dont use kabbalah symbolism as generic occult stuff, thats appropriative
  • for the record if it has hebrew on it and it doesnt have anything to do with judaism its probably appropriative
  • dont wear a magen david if youre not jewish, its used as a symbol for judaism so wearing it if youre a gentile is appropriative
  • while im at it heres a rundown of some terms you should know
  • goy: hebrew and yiddish for non-jewish person, it literally translates as “nation.” the plural form is goyim. goy is not a slur.
  • gentile: english for non-jewish person
  • anti-semitism: you probably know what this means but i just want to point out that the word anti-semitism was NOT coined by jews but by a german anti-semite who wanted a more scientific-sounding alternative to “judenhass,” which literally translates to “jew-hatred” so please shut up about how arabs are also semites. we know.
  • if you’re not jewish you should also avoid using the word “jew” since many jewish people are uncomfortable with it (though i personally am fine with it). use “jewish person” instead if youre a gentile

please reblog this if you’re not jewish, i almost never see gentiles acknowledging cultural appropriation of judaism and anti-semitism on tumblr, even among people who otherwise pay close attention to such issues

(via lesserjoke)

29 9 / 2014

29 9 / 2014

28 9 / 2014

Haedus Toolbox SCA, Manual

Introduction

The Haedus Toolbox SCA was designed to address one specific and pernicous problem with other sound-change applier programs in common use withing the conlang community, namely that single sounds often need to be represented by two or mor characters, whether that is ‘ts’, ‘tʰ’, or ‘qʷʰ’. This relieves the user from having to artificially re-order rules because ‘p > b’ happens to also affect ‘pʰ’ even when the intent of the user is for these to be distinct and segments. The SCA can infer the what sequences should be treated as unitary by attaching diacritics and modifier letters to a preceding base character. The user can also manually specify sequences that should be treated as atomic.

Running The SCA

To use the SCA, the user must provide a lexicon and rules file. In stand-alone operation, it can be run using the command

java -jar sca.jar LEXICON RULES OUTPUT

with the user providing paths for the worlist, rules, and output file. This can, of course, be placed into a batch or shell script for your convenience. However, running SCA through a terminal is recommended, so that any errors can be printed to the terminal. Later versions will permit the user to provide only the script, in which the input and output paths are specified

Scripts

Operation of the SCA is controlled through a script file while primarily contains rule definitions, but which also allows the user to define variables, reserve character sequences, and control segmentaton and normalization. Lists of things, like sources and targets in rules, the contents of sets inside conditions, variable definitions, and commands to reserve character sequences are all delimited by whitespace (the space character, or tab) and is quantity-insensitive, so you can use extra spaces, or tabs to make columns align, as you will see throughout the examples.

While whitespace is used to separate items in lists, padding around operators and delimiters is optional. As elsewhere the quantity is not important.

The following characters have special meanings in the SCA script language and cannot be used elsewhere: >, /, _, #, $, %, *, ?, +, !, (, ), {, }, ., =

Script files may contain comments, starting with %, either at the beginning of a line, or in-line.

Command

Apart from rules and variables, there are additional commands used to control segmenation and normalziation and reserve sequences to be treated as atomic. This is controlled by the following command, plus one of the listed flags

NORMALIZATION:

  • NFD Canonical decomposition (default)
  • NFC Canonical decomposition, followed by canonical composition
  • NFKD Compatibility decomposition
  • NFKC Compatibility decomposition followed by compatibility composition
  • NONE No normalization; input is not modified

SEGMENTATION:

  • TRUE By default, automatic segmentation is used
  • FALSE Treats each input character as atomic, except where characters are reserved by the use

Variables

The SCA allows for the definition of variables (and re-definition) on-the-fly, anywhere in the script. Variables definitions consist of a label, the assignment operator = and a space-separated list of values. For example:

TH = pʰ tʰ kʰ
T  = p  t  k
D  = b  d  g
W  = w  y  ɰ
N  = m  n
C  = TH T D W N r s

The values may contain other variable labels. There are no restrictions on variable naming - it is up to the user to avoid conflicts. However, when SCA parses a rule or variable definition, it searches for variables by finding the longest matching lable. If you have T, H, and TH defined as variables, a rule containing TH will always be understood to represent the variable TH, and not T followed by H.

If you wish to define longer variable names, you can use a non-reseved prefix like & or @, or wrap the name in square brackets.

The Rule Format

The syntax for rules is desinged to be similar to that used to describe sound changes in linguistics generally, and to support pattern matching using regular expressions.

This SCA uses > as the transformation operator, and separates the transformation and condition using /. The condition is not required and rules lacking a condition do not require the the / symbol. When the / symbol is present, the precondition-postcondition separator _ must appear exactly once.

Some basic rules are:

pʰ tʰ kʰ > f  θ  x
p  t  k  > b  d  g  / N_
p  t  k  > pʰ tʰ kʰ / _V

[Aspirata] > [Anaspirata]

The first part of the rule (before /) is the transform which may contain literals and variables, as well as sequences of both.

Note that if mutliple sounds converge (or are deleted), such as a merger of e and o with a, then the following are equivalent:

e o > a a
e o > a

Deletion

Segments can be deleted by transforming them to 0 (the character zero). This can be written as follows:

x h > 0

Just as with other transformations, if all segments are to be deleted, then the rule can be written as shown above. However, one can also write a zero along with other sounds as follows:

w s h > 0 h 0 / #_

Indices and Backreferences

The SCA permits the transform of rules to contain backreferences which can be very useful in writing rules for metathesis or total assimilation. For example

C = p t k
N = n m
CN > $2$1

allows us to easily represent metathesis, swapping N and C wherever N is found following C.

When SCA parses a rule, it keeps track of each variable in the source part of the transform and knows in the above example, that C is at index 1 and N is at index 2. The target part of the transform lets us refer back to this using the $ symbol and the index of the variable we wish to refer to.

We can actually go slightly further, however and use the indices on a different variable. In a slighly variation on the previous example, we can write

C = p t k
G = b d g
N = n m
CN > $2$G1

which does the same as the above, but also replaces any element of C with the corresponding element of G. So, if a word is atna, the rule will change it to anda.

This can also be used for some kinds of assimilation and dissimilation, such as simplifying clusters of plosives by changing the second to be the same as the first:

C = p t k
CC > $1$1

This will change a word like akpa to akka; in this case, it is actually equivalent to write CC > C$1

Condition Format

Most of the power of the Toolbox condition format lies in it’s ability to use ad-hoc sets, and regular expressions. The underscore character _ separates the precondition from the postcondition, so that the rule will be applied only when both sides of the condition match.

The / part of the rule can be left out if there is no condition: a > b is equivalent to a > b / _ and both are valid. A rule can have / and _ or neither, but a > b _ and a > b / are both invalid.

Regular Expression metacharacters

  • + matches the previous expression one or more times
  • * matches the previous expression zero or more times
  • ? matches the previous expression zero or one times
  • {} matches any of the list of expressions inside it
  • () used to group expressions
  • !matches anything that is NOT the following expression (NB: not implemented)
  • .matches any character (NB: not implemented)

Sets, delimited by curly braces {}, contain a list of space-separated subexpressions. These can be single characters, variables, or other regular expressions - anything allowed elsewhere in the condition. It’s not clear that this capability is of any real use, but it remains avaible if you happen to find a use for it. Some examples

{ a b c }
{ a b+ }
{ C a }
{ C(a)? x }
{ C{a b} x }

Take some care when writing rules that use ? or *. Because these allow a condition to match zero times, any condition consisting solely of _X? or X*_ will match no matter what. This is because, logically, _X? is equivalent to _X OR _. Further, X?_Y? does not just allow the rule to match both X_ or _Y, but also _, and any rule matching _ will be applied everywhere

Joint Conditions

Another piece of advanced functionality supported by this SCA is the capacity to combine mulitple conditions in one rule using OR. For example, if the same transformation occurs under multiple conditions, they can be joined together:

o e > a / X_ OR _Y % change e and o to a when preceded by X or followed by Y

28 9 / 2014

cashmerethoughtsss:

strugglingtobeheard:

jamaicanfemmefatale:

postwhitesociety:

highvoodoopussypope:

cuppycakeermk:

this moment was so sad.

black girls are human beings

man i used to really not like her. tumblr showed me the way

I felt that last comment

black girls are vulnerable. we have feelings. we dont always care what others think, but what they say can have an affect on us. no one wants to let us live. i can only imagine if my words were on a scale as large as hers, how difficult it would be.

She’s always bashed, criticized, made fun of, and her words and sentiments are almost always dismissed. People look at her and don’t take her seriously and it’s completely unfair. 

(Source: ixivxciv, via thethirdkindofking)

28 9 / 2014

homosexualmango:

cranialgames:

teapotsahoy:

vassraptor

coffeeandcockatiels:

Always make sure to start Wandows Ngrmadly.

#ia ia windows fhtagn
I don’t think this boot looks promising.

Wandows

Safe mode wath fetwgrkifg

This is one of my long-time favorite error photos. This has been in my ‘lol’ folder for probably 8 or 9 years.

homosexualmango:

cranialgames:

teapotsahoy:

vassraptor

coffeeandcockatiels:

Always make sure to start Wandows Ngrmadly.

#ia ia windows fhtagn

I don’t think this boot looks promising.

Wandows

Safe mode wath fetwgrkifg

This is one of my long-time favorite error photos. This has been in my ‘lol’ folder for probably 8 or 9 years.

(via lizardvvizard)

28 9 / 2014

lizardvvizard:

The new Dr Who seems rad

(Source: televisionsgifs)

28 9 / 2014

blurrycryptid:

"His hound is to the hunting gane,  His hawk to fetch the wild-fowl hame, His lady’s ta’en anither mate, So we may mak our dinner sweet.”

blurrycryptid:

"His hound is to the hunting gane,
His hawk to fetch the wild-fowl hame,
His lady’s ta’en anither mate,
So we may mak our dinner sweet.”

(Source: archive.org, via trashymommarocks)

28 9 / 2014

27 9 / 2014

cumaeansibyl:

kisssinpink:

lloveuntilwebleed:

rareandradiantmaiden:

gaymermaids:

knifeplay:

girl-bear:

campaignofdistractions:

“The monetary cost for a rape victim to receive treatment at a hospital in the United States.”

EVERYONE
EVERYONE
EVERYONE SHOULD KNOW ABOUT THIS

what the actual FUCK

I wish I could even be shocked

Just gonna keep reblogging this

fuck

this is the biggest crock of fucking bullshit i’ve ever fucking seen FUCK

“but why didn’t you go to the hospital?”

Well shit, I never even thought about this aspect. “Healthcare is a privilege, not a right” say the fucks who never had to go without it.I mean, the government pays to incarcerate perpetrators, but won’t do shit to care for victims.

cumaeansibyl:

kisssinpink:

lloveuntilwebleed:

rareandradiantmaiden:

gaymermaids:

knifeplay:

girl-bear:

campaignofdistractions:

  • The monetary cost for a rape victim to receive treatment at a hospital in the United States.

EVERYONE

EVERYONE

EVERYONE SHOULD KNOW ABOUT THIS

what the actual FUCK

I wish I could even be shocked

Just gonna keep reblogging this

fuck

this is the biggest crock of fucking bullshit i’ve ever fucking seen FUCK

“but why didn’t you go to the hospital?”

Well shit, I never even thought about this aspect. “Healthcare is a privilege, not a right” say the fucks who never had to go without it.

I mean, the government pays to incarcerate perpetrators, but won’t do shit to care for victims.

(via lizardvvizard)